Land and climate are shaped by water. Life depends to a great extent on it as well as the drinking water quality. Both humans and animals are affected by the drinking water quality when it comes to their health. Water is believed to be responsible for about 80% of all diseases in humans, according to the WHO.
Analyzing water quality involves a set of biological, physical, and chemical factors that are highly correlated to how the water will be used. Toxic chemicals and harmful pathogens should not be in drinking water. Contamination of freshwater (especially groundwater) sources is one of the biggest challenges South Africans face today, especially in communities that rely almost exclusively on underground water. The earth’s groundwater is used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes all over the world. As a result, the presence of contaminants in natural freshwater continues to be a major environmental issue around the world, particularly in developing countries. It is not easy to restore the quality of contaminated groundwater, so protecting it is the best course of action.
Since it is influenced by so many factors, the concept and theory of water quality is very broad. Different water uses will require different water quality requirements because they are intended for different uses, i.e., different water uses will require different criteria to satisfy. To determine water quality, it is essential to clearly define all the accepted and unaccepted values for each of the quality variables. The product is considered safe for use if it meets the pre-established quality parameters. If possible, treated water should be used if it does not meet these standards.
Solids content is a measure of the total solids, which includes floating matter, settleable matter, colloidal matter, and matter in solution.
Drinking water’s chemical constituents can be more hazardous than its physical constituents. It is esthetic value more than health effects that makes physical parameters objectionable. However, some of the chemical constituents are objectionable both aesthetically and because of their potentially harmful effects on health. The chemical constituents have a potential to cause health problems over a long period of time. Therefore, humans are affected by the chemistry cumulatively. These parameters are alkalinity, BIOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), dissolved gases, nitrogen compounds, pH, phosphorus and solids (organic). Observed reactions can demonstrate chemical characteristics, such as in laundering, redox reactions, and so on.
In order to control diseases caused by pathogenic organisms of human origin, we need biological parameters as the basis of quality control. In surface water, pathogenic organisms include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, plants, and animals. Microscopes are the only way to observe some of these organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses) that cause disease. In addition to their impact on public health, microbiological agents can significantly affect water quality as well as its physicochemical properties . Drinking and cooking water must be pathogen-free. Water contaminated with human or animal feces poses the greatest microbial risk. Pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, and viruses can live in feces. Microbial safety targets should be based on the health-based concerns associated with feces. There is a great need to avoid water-borne diseases as they are able to infect large numbers of people simultaneously. Many of the diseases that may be waterborne may also be transmitted through other routes, such as person-to-person contact, droplets and aerosols, and ingesting food.
It takes a lot of time and effort to perform comprehensive bacterial testing. To detect the degree of bacterial contamination from a batch of samples, different tests have been developed. For the estimation of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes), two widely used test methods are used. Among them are the total number of coliforms or the E. It is found that the second one is a better indicator of biological contamination than the first.